4 Understand That People Are Wired Very Differently4 要明白人与人之间的思维方式差异很大
Because of the different ways that our brains are wired, we all experience reality in different ways and any single way is essentially distorted. This is something that we need to acknowledge and deal with. So if you want to know what is true and what to do about it, you must understand your own brain.
That insight led me to talk with many psychologists, psychiatrists, neuroscientists, personality testers, and other believable people in the field, and it led me to read many books. I discovered that though it is obvious to all of us that we are born with different strengths and weaknesses in areas such as common sense, creativity, memory, synthesis, attention to detail, and so forth, examining these differences objectively makes even most scientists uncomfortable. But that doesn’t make it any less necessary, so I pushed forward with these explorations over several decades.
As a result, I have learned a lot that helped me and that I believe can help you. In fact, I attribute as much of my success to what I’ve learned about the brain as I do to my understanding of economics and investing. In this chapter, I will share some of the amazing things I’ve learned.
因此，我学到了很多能够帮到我的东西，同时我相信它也能帮到你。事实上，我对人的大脑的了解对我成功所起到的作用，不比我对经济学和投资的理解所起到作用小。在这一章里，我将分享我所学到的一些非常精彩的东西。WHY I TURNED TO NEUROSCIENCE为什么我会去研究神经科学？
When I started Bridgewater two years out of business school武林志电影 , I had to manage people for the first time. At first I thought that hiring smart people—for instance, the top students out of the top schools—should get me capable employees劫掠梦魇 , but as often as not, those people didn’t turn out well. “Book smarts” didn’t typically equate to the type of smarts I needed.
I wanted to work with independent thinkers who were creative, conceptual, and had a lot of common sense. But I had a hard time finding those sorts of people and even when I did, I was shocked at how differently their brains seemed to work. It was as though we were speaking different languages. For example, those who were “conceptual” and imprecise spoke one language while those who were literal and precise spoke another. At the time, we chalked this up to “communication problems,” but the differences were much deeper than that—and they were painful for all of us, particularly when we were trying to achieve big things together.
I remember one research project—an ambitious attempt to systemize our global understanding of the bond markets—that took place years ago. Bob Prince was running it, and while we agreed conceptually on what we were trying to do, the project didn’t get pushed through to results. We’d meet with Bob and his team to agree on the goal and lay out how to get there. But when they’d go off to work on it, they’d make no progress. The problem was that conceptual people who visualized what should be done in vague ways expected more literal people to figure out for themselves how to do it. When they didn’t, the more conceptual people thought the more literal people had no imagination, and the more literal people thought the more conceptual people had their heads in the clouds. To make matters worse, none of them knew which were which—the more literal people thought that they were as conceptual as the conceptual people and vice versa. In short, we were gridlocked, and everyone thought it was someone else’s fault—that the people they were locking horns with were blind, stubborn, or just plain stupid.
我记得有一个研究项目，它一项雄心勃勃的尝试，旨在将我们对债券市场的全球理解系统化。这个项目发生很多年前金首露 。当时Bob Prince在运营这个项目，同时我们也在概念上同意尽力去做混沌研习社 ，但这个项目没有被推进并产出结果。我们和Bob以及他的团队会面拖拖我的家，目标达成了一致，并制定出达成目标的方法。但是当我们去行动时，依然没有任何进展。产生这个问题的在于，概念性的人模糊的预想该做些什么虎墨沉香 ，期望务实的人自己想出具体要怎么做。当他们没有想出来时私语书，概念性更强的人就认为务实的人没有想象力。务实的人则认为概念性的人想法太虚幻缥缈。更糟的是，他们自己并不知道谁是偏概念性的，谁是务实的。务实的人认为他们和概念性的人一样有概念，反之亦然。简而言之，我们陷入了僵局，每个人都认为是别人的错，都认为对方盲目，顽固，或纯粹是蠢。
Those meetings were painful for everyone. Because no one was clear about what they were good or bad at, everybody expressed opinions about everything and there wasn’t any sensible way of sorting through them. We discussed why the group was failing, which led us to see that the individuals Bob had chosen for his team reflected his own strengths and weaknesses in their own roles. While that took frankness and open-mindedness and was a big step forward, it wasn’t recorded and systematically converted into adequate changes, so the same people kept making the same sort of mistakes, over and over again.
Isn’t it obvious that our different ways of thinking, our emotional responses, and our not having ways of dealing with them is crippling us? What are we supposed to do, not deal with them?
I’m sure you’ve been in contentious disagreements before—ones where people have different points of view and can’t agree on what’s right. Good people with good intentions get angry and emotional; it is frustrating and often becomes personal. Most companies avoid this by suppressing open debate and having those with the most authority simply make the calls. I didn’t want that kind of company. I knew we needed to dig more deeply into what was preventing us from working together more effectively虚怀若谷造句 , bring those things to the surface, and explore them.
Bridgewater’s roughly 1,500 employees do many different things—some strive to understand the global markets; others develop technologies; still others serve clients, manage health insurance and other benefits for employees, provide legal guidance, manage IT and facilities, and so on. All these activities require different types of people to work together in ways that harvest the best ideas and throw away the worst. Organizing people to complement their strengths and compensate for their weaknesses is like conducting an orchestra. It can be magnificent if done well and terrible if done poorly.
While “know thyself” and “to thine own self be true” are fundamental tenets I had heard long before I began looking into the brain, I had no idea how to go about getting that knowledge or how to act on it until we made these discoveries about how people think differently. The better we know ourselves, the better we can recognize both what can be changed and how to change it为人处世之道, and what can’t be changed and what we can do about that. So no matter what you set out to do—whether on your own, as a member of an organization, or as its director—you need to understand how you and other people are wired.